Bacterial plaque is the main etiological factor associated with periodontitis, but there are several other variables that can put a person at risk of developing a disease (3, 99, 100, 10). Of all the various microorganisms that colonize the mouth, there are three: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia (formerly Bacteroides forsythus) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans have been implicated as etiologic agents in periodontitis. As stated above, the presence of periodontal pathogens, although necessary to cause the disease, is not sufficient. In fact, the probability ratio of developing periodontal disease in a person who harbors one of the supposed periodontal pathogens is not high enough to consider them a risk factor (Ezzo and Cutler, 200).
Actinomycetemcomitan does not confer any additional risk of developing localized aggressive periodontitis in adults, although its presence is necessary for the disease to develop (Buchmann, et al. It has been shown that Prevotella intermedia, P. gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum may be indicators of periodontal disease risk in a diverse population, although they are not risk factors (Alpagot et al. Smoking and type 1 and 2 diabetes are well-established risk factors for periodontal disease, while etiological microorganisms P.
Genetic polymorphisms have also been investigated, especially with regard to IL1, but also to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and others, although strictly speaking they cannot generally be considered markers or indicators of risk. Similarly, susceptibility to periodontal disease may result from defects in neutrophil function. In the case of localized aggressive periodontitis, the defect may be relatively benign. In the most serious conditions of neutrophil dysfunction, the incidence may be so low or the disease so debilitating that it prevents a rigorous analysis of periodontal relationships.
Future studies are likely to focus on understanding the relationship between genetic and environmental factors and also on the rapid and practical identification of people at risk, and will allow us to adapt therapy to better suit the needs of our patients as individuals and, therefore, achieve better results. A diet low in important nutrients can compromise the body's immune system and make it difficult for the body to fight infections. Because periodontal disease begins as an infection, poor nutrition can worsen the condition of the gums. In addition, research has shown that obesity may increase the risk of periodontal disease.
Similarly, some medications can also affect your oral health. Some reduce the flow of saliva, which can cause dry mouth and prevent bacteria from the gums and tongue from being eliminated. Others can create hormonal changes that could increase the body's inflammatory response or alter the immune response, increasing the susceptibility to oral infections. If you have dental implants or are thinking about getting implants, you may have heard of peri-implant diseases.
In fact, these gum diseases are unique to dental implants, but the implants themselves do not increase the risk of contracting periodontal disease. Implants work just like your real teeth: by avoiding the risk factors for periodontal disease mentioned above and practicing good oral hygiene, your dental implants can last a lifetime. If you suspect that you may have periodontal disease, there are treatments depending on the severity of your case. See your dentist right away for a diagnosis and treatment plan so you can restore your oral health as soon as possible.
Otherwise, follow the tips above to minimize risk factors for periodontitis that you can control and fight against those that you can't. With the right oral hygiene routine and the help of your dental professionals, you can maintain a healthy smile for life. Periodontal diseases are primarily the result of infections and inflammation of the gums and bones that surround and support the teeth. In their early stage, called gingivitis, the gums may become inflamed and red, and may bleed.
In its most severe form, called periodontitis, the gums can separate from the tooth, bone can be lost, and the teeth can loosen or even fall out. Periodontal disease is mainly seen in adults. Periodontal disease and tooth decay are the two biggest threats to dental health. This condition is more common in men than in women (56.4% vs.
38.4%), people living below the federal poverty level (65.4%), people with less than secondary education (66.9%), and current smokers (64.2%). Bacteria in the mouth infect the tissue surrounding the tooth and cause inflammation around the tooth and cause periodontal disease. When bacteria stay on the teeth long enough, they form a film called plaque, which eventually hardens and turns into tartar, also called calculus. Tartar buildup can spread below the gum line, making teeth more difficult to clean.
So, only a dental health professional can remove tartar and stop the process of periodontal disease. Gingivitis can be controlled and treated with good oral hygiene and regular professional cleaning. More serious forms of periodontal disease can also be successfully treated, but may require more extensive treatment. Such treatment may include deep cleaning of the root surfaces of the teeth below the gums, medications that are prescribed to be taken by mouth or placed directly under the gums, and sometimes corrective surgery.
CDC is currently working with key partner organizations, such as the American Academy of Periodontics and the American Dental Association, to improve and maintain surveillance for periodontal disease in U.S. adults. UU. CDC efforts include (developing measures for use in periodontal disease surveillance at the state and local levels), (improving the validity of prevalence estimates derived from the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), improving the accuracy of the clinical examination protocols used in this national survey, and (developing simple measures to detect periodontal disease in clinical settings).
Tobacco use The main risk factor for periodontal disease is the consumption of tobacco products. Smokers, in particular, are twice as likely to have periodontal problems as non-smokers. Tobacco use impairs the immune system, making it difficult for the body to fight the infection and chronic inflammation caused by periodontitis. If you undergo gum therapy but continue to smoke, gum tissue healing may be compromised, leading to a less than ideal result.
Similarly, it has been demonstrated that indigenous and relatively isolated populations develop different periodontal or periodontal diseases that differ from one group to another (Dowsett et al. The effects of periodontitis are serious and irreversible, and treatment usually involves surgery, so understand what causes periodontitis and what factors increase the risk of serious gum disease. With the knowledge of the possible links between periodontal disease and systemic health that has emerged over the past decade, research on susceptibility to periodontal disease has acquired broader importance. This knowledge has allowed us to concentrate efforts on developing markers that allow us to identify susceptible people before they develop periodontitis and identify risk factors that could be modified to prevent or alter the course of periodontal disease.
Poor oral health As mentioned above, periodontal disease is caused by bacteria, and if you don't practice excellent care habits at home and don't visit your dentist on a regular basis, periodontal disease can develop quickly. CDC is currently working with key partner organizations, such as the American Academy of Periodontics and the American Dental Association, to improve and maintain surveillance for periodontal disease in adults. Although bacterial infection is the etiologic agent of periodontal disease, studies of identical twins suggest that 50% of the susceptibility to periodontal disease is due to host factors (Michalowicz et al. However, in people susceptible to periodontal disease, harmful bacteria can take over and initiate the process that leads to gingivitis and periodontitis.